When writing the series Exploring Occult Symbolism From a History and Herstory Perspective of Education, I did not set out to demonise Rome as being a cult that grew exponentially. My conclusion developed organically. It was only when I finished putting down in writing the journey of my learnings, that I was able to reflect back and see that the original ideas of Christianity were noble and that the Holy Roman Catholic Church was not evil per se, rather, it was just a conduit for Roman culture. I questioned myself. Had I got it right? Was I the only one who could see the historical chain of negative influence in Roman rulership that extended back further to Greek influence, namely via the promotion of Aristotle? I knew my research was solid, so I stuck with what I knew to be true. After publishing the series I continued to investigate so as to find others who saw the same pattern. Isaac Newton was a key place to start; he left behind countless notebooks detailing his Biblical research.
Most people know Newton to be a renown scientist and mathematician who helped thrust the world out of superstitious thought into the realm of rationality. Namely, he did so through his work in optics, relativity, and calculus. Less known is the work Newton did on deciphering Old and New Testament prophecies. In his lifetime, he had to keep his findings low key because his views would have been considered heresy and, in turn, he would been expelled from his post at Cambridge University. For a thorough background on Newton’s religious standings, I recommend Rob Iliffe’s essay titled Church, Heresy, and Pure Religion.
Putting it briefly, Newton held strong Christian faith in the existence of God and a brotherhood of love based upon teachings of Jesus Christ, however, he was also convinced that Christianity had been corrupted. Mostly, he points to issues that arose in the fourth century when the Church became Romanised through a series of council meetings. Even more fascinating, he perceived Rome to be the great beast of the fourth seal whose name was Death and Hades, as described in the Book of Revelation. Further, Newton surmised the lesser beasts preceding Rome were Greece, Persia, and Babylon.
Newton’s interpretations were the result of copious amounts of time studying Jewish figurative speech. His faith did not completely align with orthodox Protestantism, but he did share some of their views, such as:
the signification of words in Scripture is to be esteemed and taken only according to the Scripture use, though other writers use them otherwise.Joseph Mede Apostasy of the Latter Times (1642), pg. 120
From Exploring Occult Symbolism From a History and Herstory Perspective of Education: Part 11 – A Return to Aristotle (Or Did We Ever Leave?):
Newton took a scientific approach to the Bible and analysed scripture to identify language patterns, allegory systems, and symbols that he believed were known and applied by all prophets:
“The Rule I have followed has been to compare the several mystical places of scripture where the same prophetic phrase or type is used, and to fix such a signification to that phrase as agrees best with all the places . . . and, when I had found the necessary significations, to reject all others as the offspring of luxuriant fancy, for no more significations are to be admitted for true ones than can be proved.”
Isaac Newton, Royal Society, 2015, p. 524
Examples of the codes Newton worked out were: Sun = King; Moon = groups of common people referred to as wife; Darkening of celestial bodies = doom for political groups; and Dens and rocks in mountains = temples. Where Biblical texts referred to the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, Newton claimed it meant Spirit, Water, and Blood.
Through this process of examining symbology, he identified that the prophecies in the Old Testament Book of Daniel were repeated in the New Testament Book of Revelation written by St John.
In Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733), Newton made the following remarks:
… Daniel‘s Prophecies […] represents a body of four great nations, which should reign over the earth successively, viz. the people of Babylonia, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans.CHAP. III.
Of the vision of the Image composed of four Metals (1733)
The first Beast was like a lion, and had eagle’s wings, to denote the kingdoms of Babylonia and Media, which overthrew the Assyrian Empire, and divided it between them, and thereby became considerable, and grew into great Empires.
The second Beast was like a bear, and represents the Empire which reigned next after the Babylonians, that is, the Empire of the Persians. Thy kingdom is divided, or broken, saith Daniel to the last King of Babylon, and given to the Medes and Persians, Dan. v. 28.
The third Beast was the kingdom which succeeded the Persian; and this was the empire of the Greeks , Dan. viii. 6, 7, 20, 21. It was like a Leopard, to signify its fierceness; and had four heads and four wings, to signify that it should become divided into four kingdoms, Dan. viii 22.
The fourth Beast was the empire which succeeded that of the Greeks, and this was the Roman. This beast was exceeding dreadful and terrible, and had great iron teeth, and devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and such was the Roman empire. It was larger, stronger, and more formidable and lasting than any of the former. […] And by […] conquests it became greater and more terrible than any of the three former Beasts.CHAP. IV.
Of the vision of the four Beasts (1733)
I have found it very reassuring that someone of such elevated standing as Newton saw the same pattern as I, albeit, he came to his conclusions via different means. My investigations of negative influences have predominately been through examining the history of patriarchy, a system that purports men are superior and governance of others should be passed down through male lineages. The crux of patriarchy, however, is not simply a matter of male supremacy, it is an ideology that proposes that some males are superior to other males, thus it encourages war between men, racism, and sexism. Patriarchy is based upon the fallible superstition that males are spiritually superior to females, slaves, children, and some other males. Everyone, except maybe those who hold the positions of power, are victims of patriarchy’s narcissistic traits and behaviours.
It is not uncommon for narcissists to believe they have a divine right to rule others due to a supposed special relationship with a Godhead. Narcissists also set standards for others that are unreasonably high that they do not met themselves, then they employ gaslighting techniques if their dominance is challenged. Patriarchy’s shared traits with narcissistic personality disorder continues with grandiose expectations of entitlement and attention, through to violent and aggressive behaviours. Patriarchy, as a pathological culture normalises abuse and, sometimes, even glamourises it as being divine. Many of these negative tendencies can be found in the people who held leadership positions in Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome.
Babylonian Empire (1895 – 539 BCE)
The Ancient Babylonian Empire was founded on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, which today is Iraq and parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iran. For about the past 4000 years, the lands of Mesopotamia have been the site of almost constant conflict, with few respites of peace. Unlike other areas of the Mediterranean, such as the Egyptian Old Kingdom, Etruscans, and Greeks of the Dark Ages, the Babylonian Empire emerged as a patriarchal society very early on. The culture before Babylonia, the Sumerians, had some egalitarian customs, however, by the time the Babylonians had their stronghold, the hierarchal governance gave more rights to men than women. It is in Babylonia that we see the first clear examples of females being treated like the are the property of males, with fathers being able to sell their daughters as slaves or prostitutes. Male dominance was maintained by preventing girls from having the same access to education as boys.
Babylon’s Empire formally began with King Hammurabi, who obtained increased power through a series of wars, notably defeating the King of Larsa, Rim-Sin. One of Hammurabi’s incentives was to access the fertile lands around Uruk for agricultural purposes.
Left: Map of the Babylonian Empire in the second century BCE. Source: Wikipedia Commons. Right: Map of the Mesopotamian region today. Source: Towards Data Science.
The main religious attitude of Babylonia was polytheistic, with many deities being worshipped. Hammurabi believed their creator Gods, Anu and Bel, had called him by name to righteously rule the land of Babylon. His declaration includes a desire “to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak […] and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind.” However, Hammurabi extensive list of law codes also included:
- If a “sister of a god” open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death.
- If a man take a woman to wife, but have no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him.
- If a man marry a woman and she bear him no sons; if then this woman die, if the “purchase price” which he had paid into the house of his father-in-law is repaid to him, her husband shall have no claim upon the dowry of this woman; it belongs to her father’s house.
- If a father devote a temple-maid or temple-virgin to God and give her no present: if then the father die, she shall receive the third of a child’s portion from the inheritance of her father’s house, and enjoy its usufruct so long as she lives. Her estate belongs to her brothers.
Kings and rulers that followed Hammurabi maintained these misogynistic values. Further, the Romans used the Babylonian concept of law codes to form their own rules and regulations.
At some point during the Babylonian Empire, the religion of Zoroastrianism began, however, it did not gain popularity until late in the era.
Babylonian architecture was mostly made out of mud-brick, hence, due to is structural weakness and near constant battles between city-states, much hasn’t survived. Their artworks depicted geometric patterns and reliefs on the sides of the buildings that featured animal like lions with wings.
Left: Babylon Door. Source: Wikipedia Commons , Centre and right: Babylonian reliefs housed at the Louve. Source: Wikipedia Commons
Persian Empire (559 BCE – 331 BCE)
The Persian Empire began in what is modern day Iran. Like many cultures, it began as a small cult that spread its culture far and wide in eastern and western directions. The era is generally noted as beginning with the ruler Cyrus the Great (c. 600 – 530 BCE). He was a Zoroastrian, the major religion of the Persians, however, there was much tolerance of other faiths.
Map of Persian Empire. Source: Wikipedia Commons
Zoroastrianism faith involves belief in dualistic forces of good and evil that are constantly striving to out do each other. It is here that we see the first clear presentation of the concepts of heaven and hell as being places people may go to in the afterlife. Zoroastrian cosmology references the stars of the Zodiac in what, on one hand can be traced back to Babylonian astrologers, and on the other hand, echos’ sentiments that can be found in the ancient Indian Vedas. The elements of earth, water, air, and fire, were used symbolically in rituals and theology. The importance Zoroastrians displayed towards fire spurred their neighbours (the Greeks) to accuse them of being fire worshippers. To the Zoroastrians, fire was a symbolic means to represent God’s light or wisdom.
Somewhat surprisingly, Persian women received more rights and respect than their counterparts in ancient Babylonia and other cultures (except Egypt). Royal women were involved in military operations, could sign documents, and hold court. Other women could run businesses, own property, receive equal pay, and choose who they married. That is not to say the Persians were, by todays standards, an egalitarian civilisation. Rather, the Persians had prejudices against “lower” classes and foreigners. The situation brings to light the idea that narcissistic traits are not bound by gender.
The great Persian army, dubbed the Immortals, was formed under the command of Pantea Artesbod, a woman. Further, there are several records of female warriors receiving glory and recognition for their skill and bravery in battle, for example, Artemisia of Caria. Artemisia, a name derived from the Greek goddess Artemis, ruled the throne of Caria for a period, however, this was only as a regent because her son was too young to rule; hence despite women demonstrating their capacities to be equal to men, a patriarchal framework endured within Persian culture.
Persian art continued the style of Babylonians, with emphasis on wings and sphinx-like characters. While women received acclaim in Ancient Persia, very few artefacts depicting them have survived.
Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I (c. 510 BCE). Source: BC Campus
Greek Empire / Hellenistic Period (323 BC – 31 BCE)
Ancient Greece has a rich history that has been well documented via their tradition of writing, poetry, dramas, and art. Traces of its unique character can be found in Minoan and Mycenaean artefacts that date to the Greek Dark Ages and earlier, moreover, such findings point towards a monarchical or egalitarian society.
The most well known religion of Ancient Greece is that of the Eleusinian Mysteries. It was an initiation based practice that was open to all citizens who could speak Greek, whether they be free, slave, male, female, or other. The cult centre at Eleusis began in c.1450 BCE with the creation of an underground chamber below a shrine. Annual festivals celebrated the Homeric story of Zeus, Demeter, Persephone, and Hades (who were personifications of the classical elements; see The Four Elements in Theology and Ancient Texts). There is still a lot of mystery surrounding the practices and beliefs of the Eleusinian Mysteries because initiates were bound by privilege codes and subject to the death penalty if they revealed cult secrets to anyone who was not suitably initiated.
The most well known era, Greek Classical Period (480 – 323 BCE), is marked by the works of Plato and Aristotle (it is generally accepted that Plato was an initiate of the Eleusinian Mysteries but Aristotle was not). Leading up to this period, Greece had adopted patriarchal values. It is plausible to infer that this influence came from Babylonian and Persian sources, along with other cultural and religious trading, for example, Zoroastrian astrology. From 499 – 449 BCE, the Greeks were in battle with the Persians; for intermediate periods the Persians ruled parts of Greece, however, ultimately, the Greeks won the final battle.
The Greek era in which Newton refers to as being the third beast, is that of the Hellenistic Period (323 – 31 BCE). In a very short period of time, Alexander the Great (a student of Aristotle) led campaigns from west to east, conquering Persian territory plus more. Alexander did not rule the lands he had conquered for very long. As a result of disease or poisoning he died at the age of 32, which resulted in conquered lands being divided amongst four of his generals: Cassander (Macedon/Greece), Ptolemy (Egypt), Antigonus (Asia Minor/Syria), and Seleucus (Afghanistan/Iran/Iraq/Turkey/Syria/Lebanon/Armenia/Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan/Tajikistan). Thus, Greek thought, customs, beliefs, and writing became dominate across the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Empire of Alexander the Great. Source: Wikipedia Commons
It is through the Greek language and lens that most of western history has been passed down, hence, Alexander is called “Great”. To the Persians, however, he was only “great” at destruction; buildings, temples, monuments, particularly those of Zoroastrian significance, were reduced rubble. I once read on a social network comment that Alexander’s destruction was justified because he was purging the regions he conquered of erroneous paganism, moreover, the libraries he created were of great value. Personally, I tend to side more with the Persians on this issue and cannot see how brute force and the killing of innocent lives can be ever be justified. Further, the libraries that Alexander created, like the one in his namesake in Egypt, the Great Alexandrian Library, were biased towards the promotion of Aristotelian racism and sexism based upon a so-called divine order of a man’s spirit being superior to that of a woman’s animalistic soul (see Is Aristotle Overrated?: A look at one of the ways patriarchal systems have used Aristotle’s writings to justify male supremacy).
History is never straightforward. As already indicated, Greece, by the time of Alexander’s time had developed through the assimilation of Babylonian and Persian influences. In turn, Persian cultures developed under Greek influence.
Was Alexandria driven by innate personal narcissistic tendencies? Or was he driven by a cultural destain for Persia that he was taught to him by others, like Aristotle? It is hard to tell. There are records of Alexander grabbing a Delphi priestess by the hair and demanding a prophecy reading after being told to come back another day, thus indicating he had a grandiose sense of self. However, it is also reported that Alexander took up many Persian traits, such as dressing like one of them. When his best friend suggested he should dress more like a Greek, Alexander killed him, however, afterwards he felt remorse. Some speculate that Alexander may have also felt remorse for the damage he did to Persia, and had he lived longer, may have made some amends. Nonetheless, that is not what happened, rather the former Persian lands became Hellenised. (The Greek concept of female figures defining groups of people, e.g, Helen of Troy and Athena, has a correlation to the Jewish concept of women and daughters (see Theology of Early Christianity as described by Justin Martyr: Was he deliberately harmonising Jewish and Ancient Greek philosophy?) that appears to relate back to similar hidden theologies in which the realm of the “soul” is described as feminine.)
Hellenistic art was skilfully crafted using mathematical formulas of perspective and precision carving. It featured grand gods and goddesses that embodied the Greek ideals of beauty, Kállos, which inferred beauty, goodness and truth were combined. The standards set by Greek artisans were adopted by their predecessors, the Romans.
Winged Victory of Samothrace (Nike) (First century BCE). Source: Wikipedia Commons
Roman Empire 27BCE –
The Roman Empire emerged as an assimilation of Greek, Persian, and Babylonian influences, plus more, like the Etruscans, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. As described throughout Exploring Occult Symbolism From a History and Herstory Perspective of Education, Rome’s rise to being a great superpower took on many forms and is arguably still present today in the lingering authority of the Holy Roman Church and its legacy of defining Christianity.
Map of Roman Empire in 117CE. Source: Wikipedia Commons
The Roman Empire’s great take over was progressive, with the final seal of dominance culminating with Julius Caesar (c.100 – 44 BCE). Prior to this time, Rome operated under a patriarchal republic where by citizens (who were male and wealthy, and/or male and practiced a trade) could vote in who they wanted to be leaders. Caesar was not in the running to be leader, however, due to a series of political and tactical manoeuvres (like unauthorised attacks on the Gauls, the Celtic people who lived in modern day France and Germany) he became the temporary leader of Rome. However, once he had a firm grip on Roman power, he made it impossible for the senate to vote him out. Caesar viewed himself to be above the laws of other men and believed his family bloodline extended back to the deities Venus and Aeneas.
In some respects, Caesar made beneficial contributions, like reducing debt, instigating building projects, and revising the calendar (which may have been influenced by Cleopatra introducing him to Egyptian cosmology and mathematics), but his authority was not respected by fellow politicians. Caesar was killed by knife wounds that were administered by about 40 Roman senators on steps of a Republican meeting hall. The act of violence was spurred by not wanting Rome to ruled by a dictatorship, ironically, however, Caesar’s successors became Emperors, some of whom showed more compassion to the masses than others.
Statue of Julius Caesar (first century). Source: Wikipedia Commons
What I have written are broad strokes defining what I understand of the four beasts of the apocalypse if indeed, they are Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome. Newton conducted more refined research on each of these powers with precise records of Kings, specific battles, and other points of reference that can be found here. In summary, Newton describes the “horns” of Rome as changing over time; as one kingdom fell, another replaced it. He predicted that this would continue until “the son of man” came “in the clouds of Heaven”.
Often, the reporting of apocalyptic prophecies is presented hyperbolically, with the end of the world being stated as nigh. This is also true of when doomsday fanatics share Newton’s Biblical interpretations of 2060 being a time of great significance, however, this not true to to his conclusions. The dramatic events Newton predicted were not of Armageddon, rather, the date of 2060 refers to the final ending of the beasts’ reign.
To be clear, the beasts are not representative of all individuals of Babylonian, Persian, Greek, or Roman decent, rather, the beasts are cultures that exist all over the globe that enable and tolerate destructive patterns of behaviour. I state this attitude with sincerity, in the same way that I do not hold all Catholics as being responsible for atrocities committed by individuals within Holy Roman Church, as described in my concluding blog that explores occult symbolism through the history and herstory of education.
To conclude, my research on the history of patriarchal concurs with Newton’s interpretations that when the “beasts’” reigns come to an end, the prophecies are of good news because the “blood of Christ”, otherwise known as Love, will rule all humanity. Or, as Newton says:
a new kingdom should arise, after the four, and conquer all those nations, and grow very great, and last to the end of all ages.CHAP. III.
Of the vision of the Image composed of four Metals (1733)
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