In 1216, a Spanish priest called Saint Dominic, set up an order in France that originally was called Order of Preachers, however, is now known as the Dominican order. A key feature of the order is that it is known for its Aristotelian based theology. And it is from the Dominican order in which one of Catholics most well-known theologians and Doctor of the Church was trained, Thomas Aquinas .
Aquinas is credited with cultivating western thoughts, which he did so by embracing Aristotle’s ideas and bringing them into a new era. Aquinas wrote extensively and gave public lectures. Apparently Aquinas could levitate, which, if true, suggests he was not just interested in intellectual philosophies but also the magical arts and/or occultism.
It is through Aquinas that we have clear indications of Christianity’s incorporation of Aristotle’s world views being accepted as fact, right through to his theories of the classical elements (for background information see The Four Elements in Theology and Ancient Texts):
“ … there is order in the use of natural things; thus the imperfect are for the use of the perfect; as the plants make use of the earth for their nourishment, and animals make use of plants, and man makes use of both plants and animals. Therefore it is in keeping with the order of nature, that man should be master over animals”Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, c.1270, p. 800
Aquinas’ understanding of the classical elements (or principles) can be further identify when he references a familial system to symbolically describe concepts:
Now the father is principle in a more excellent way than the mother, because he is the active principle, while the mother is a passive and material principle.Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, c.1270, p. 1734
And (italic emphasis provided by myself):
Otherwise; I have come to set a man against his father; for he renounces the Devil who was his son; the daughter against her mother, that is, the people of God against the city of the world, that is, the wicked society of mankind, which is spoken of in Scripture under the names of Babylon, Egypt, Sodom, and other names. The daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, that is, the Church against the Synagogue, which according to the flesh, brought forth Christ the spouse of the Church. They are severed by the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God. And a man’s foes are they of his household, those, that is, with whom he before lived as intimates.Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, c.1270, p. 397
The above quotes also fall in line with Justin Martyr’s explanation of Christian symbolism dating back to c.150 CE (see Theology of Early Christianity as described by Justin Martyr: Was he deliberately harmonising Jewish and Ancient Greek philosophy?).
Aquinas, as a representative of the top 5% of the population during the 1200s who received an education, demonstrates there were “hidden” symbolic meanings within the Bible that the remaining 95% of the population were not necessarily aware of. (For more details see: Is Aristotle Overrated?: A look at one of the ways patriarchal systems have used Aristotle’s writings to justify male supremacy and Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Who is the Fairest Gender of Them All.)
Painting of Saint Thomas Aqinuas by Carlo Crivelli, c.1470
Source: The National Gallery
PART EIGHT: Dante Alighieri and the Virgin Mother